Articles & Resources
Both Men and Women - An article on Spirit-filled Believers from Jo Anne Lyon
I stood before that painting with eyes filled with tears. The courage of this woman to proclaim the gospel in a place of persecution! The faith of this woman to know Jesus and the power of the resurrection! The obvious attraction and hope of Jesus through her!
I then reflected on the thousands of women who are church planters in China, many between the ages of 18-24 with some 30 million followers. Again, the courage, faith and power of the Holy Spirit make this possible.
I was again drawn to the words of Joel which were preached by Peter at Pentecost:
“In the last days, God says, I will pour out my Spirit on all people. Your sons and daughters will prophesy, your young men will see visions, your old men will dream dreams. Even on my servants, both men and women, I will pour out my Spirit in those days, and they will prophesy” (Acts 2:17-18 NIV).
God is calling women to the ministry in unprecedented numbers these days, both those in college and seminaries as well as second-career women. Whether they are in North Vietnam and China, or Virginia and Canada, I believe a new Pentecost is rising with them.
A Wesleyan View of Women in Ministry
How We Read Scripture
We recognize that such a position on women in ministry is sometimes challenged on the basis of certain Scripture passages. However, we believe that all pertinent Scriptures need to be interpreted in the light of their immediate contexts, as well as in the context of Scripture as a whole. We also believe that no passages of Scripture clearly prohibit women from holding positions of authority. The passages that on the surface appear to do so are often twisted by interpretations stemming from biased readings of the text. In some cases there are faulty or biased translations. And in others there is evidence of localized situations that required special treatment that was not intended for general application.
We believe that God has progressively revealed in the Scriptures His purpose to call, equip and empower women for full opportunity of ministry in the church. Galatians 3:28 states that in the Christian era “There is neither . . . male, nor female.” This is a general principle of Scripture. Any Scriptures that at first appear to contradict this general statement must be understood in light of the general principle of Galatians 3:28. Clearly the spiritual and heavenly identity proclaimed in Galatians 3:28 has precedence over the earthly, administrative identity.
It was just such an understanding of Scripture that prompted our Wesleyan predecessors to re-examine the position held by many of their contemporaries that the Scriptures were pro- slavery, and to take the lead in both the abolition of slavery and in the abolition of discrimination against female ministers.
What We Know from Scripture
Scripture sets forth God’s original plan and its redemptive renewal that provides equal standing to both men and women.
1. In the Beginning. The creation story reveals full equality of man and woman in God’s original plan, as both were made in the image of God (Gen. 1:26-27), and the so-called “cultural mandate,” giving them full authority over the earth and all earthly life-forms, was spoken to man and woman (Gen. 1:28-30). This plan of equality was interrupted by the Fall as human sin
brought the wife’s submission to her husband (Gen. 3:16). But even at that point God spoke of His redemptive plan as He foretold that Eve’s descendant would crush Satan beneath His heel (Gen. 3:15). The redemptive purpose and mission of Jesus is to redeem all humanity from the results of the fall, including the subjection of women. Jesus has provided equal forgiveness and redemption to both men and women.
2. In the Old Testament. God Himself initiated opportunities in the Old Testament period by His call to and use and blessing of women in ministry. God used Miriam as both a prophetess (Ex. 15:20) and a leader (Micah 6:4). He used Deborah as a prophetess and as a judge who led Israel; she directed Barak as to how military victory was to be won and even accompanied him into battle (Judg. 4:4ff.). God used the prophetess Huldah (even though Jeremiah and Zephaniah were prophets at the time) to spark a great religious revival during the reign of King Josiah (2 Kings 22:14ff.; 2 Chron. 34:22ff.). And God predicted through an Old Testament prophet the coming of the long-expected Day of the Lord when the Holy Spirit would be poured out on both men and women and they and their sons and daughters would prophesy (Joel 2:28-29).
3. In the Ministry of Jesus. The New Testament shows that Jesus differed from the prevailing culture in a very positive openness to women as co-laborers. He ministered to men and women alike without distinction. He violated several cultural taboos to share the good news with the Samaritan woman who then evangelized her village (John 4:7ff.). He was accompanied by women who ministered to Him and His disciples (Mark 15:40-41; Luke 8:1-3). And Jesus chose women to be the first to see Him after His resurrection and to be the first to carry the message of the resurrection to the male disciples.
4. At Pentecost. Both men and women were awaiting the fulfillment of Jesus’ promise that they would receive power for witnessing to the whole world when the Holy Spirit would come upon them (Acts 1:13-15). It was this group of men and women that was filled with the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost, and began to speak in many languages to the Jews assembled in Jerusalem for the festival (2:1-12). Peter took the occasion to declare that “this is that” which Joel had predicted: “Your sons and daughters will prophesy . . . and on my servants, both men and women, I will pour out my Spirit in those days, and they will prophesy” (2:17-18). So the birth of Christ’s church was accompanied by the demonstration and announcement that men and women would both serve as God’s voices to carry the message of Christ to the world.
5. In the Ministry of Paul. Paul reflected Jesus’ openness to women as co-laborers. In what was probably the first epistle that he wrote, he declared that in Christ Jesus, “There is neither . . . male nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus” (Gal. 3:28). In writing to the Corinthians, he recognized that women prophesied and prayed in public worship under the new order (1 Cor. 11:5). When closing his letter to the Romans, Paul mentions ten women in chapter 16, seven of whom he speaks of with detailed, high commendation, referring to one as a “deacon” (not deaconess) who had been a great help to many including Paul himself, referring to one as “outstanding among the apostles,” referring to one as a “fellow worker,” and referring to those who had worked hard “in the Lord” or for the Roman believers. In Philippians 4:2-3 he mentions two women who had “contended at my side in the cause of the gospel.”
6. Misused Passages. Among Scripture passages frequently cited against women serving in the ministry, probably the most significant are 1 Corinthians 14:33b-35 (“women should remain silent in the churches”), 1 Timothy 2:11-15 (women are not to teach or have authority over men), and passages in 1 Timothy and Titus calling for a minister to be “the husband of one wife.” The 1 Corinthians passage is definitely dealing with a specialized, probably localized cultural issue, since in 11:5 Paul recognizes women speaking in church as a normal thing. The 1 Timothy passage as translated and interpreted is also inconsistent with Paul’s position in 1 Corinthians 11:5. It probably deals with the false teaching at Ephesus that is repeatedly discussed by Paul in 1 Timothy. The 1 Timothy passage concludes with a reference to women being “saved through childbearing,” which has defied any consensus of interpretation. Paul sets forth qualifications for “a bishop” (KJV) or “overseer” (NIV) in 1 Timothy 3:1ff., and elder/bishop/overseer in Titus 1:5-7, and “a deacon” in 1 Timothy 3:12, and in all cases says that such is to be the “husband of but one wife.” Since Paul implies that he and Barnabas were not married (1 Cor. 9:5-6) and he specifically calls Phoebe a deacon (Rom. 16:1), it is clear that the references in 1 Timothy and Titus were not intended to exclude women and single men from ministry, but to exclude polygamous men.
7. Summary. One rule of scriptural interpretation is that passages that are unclear are to be interpreted in the light of clear ones. We are left with the clear examples of Jesus and Paul, the clear statements of Joel, Peter and Paul as our scriptural mandate. Just as the Lord provided opportunities for Old Testament women to lead, and just as the examples of Jesus and Paul in the New Testament provided increasing opportunities for women to lead, so we are called to enact this redemptive action. To live within the teachings of Scripture, we must work counter- culturally to provide women with increasing opportunities to answer the call of God.
What We Know about the Character of God
Throughout the Scriptures we see that it is like God to work in ways contrary to traditional human systems of authority. God has never limited revelation to kings, rulers, or government officials. To the contrary, we see God divinely empowering the poor, the prostitute, the virgin, and the widow. Even Jesus came to earth as a poor carpenter. God has always worked counter-culturally to bring about the revolutionary Kingdom of God (1 Cor. 1:26-31). It is in keeping with the character of God that women are called to ministry.
We also recognize that it is essential that anyone serving in the ministry must be chosen by God—man or woman. Men and women both must testify to such a call and confirm it through their holy outworking of this mission.
Furthermore, we recognize that women are also called to “go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing . . . and teaching them” (Matt. 28:19-20). If a woman’s call to fulfill the Great Commission is in the form of ministerial leadership, then it is not only her privilege, but her obligation to obey the Holy Spirit.
Our Wesleyan Heritage
“The Christian concept of equality before the cross upon which Christ died removes grounds for discrimination of one toward another. The obvious grounds of discrimination between people on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age, wealth or handicap are overcome by the unity of Christian love and by common personal submission to Christ.” (Task Force on Public Morals and Social Concerns, in Standing Firm: The Wesleyan Church Speaks on Contemporary Issues, p. 5)
“The Wesleyan Church has a rich heritage in the anti-slavery movement in the United States in the mid-nineteenth century. One of the precedent bodies of the present denomination was born and flourished under just such a banner. While the current culture is more subtle in its expressions of prejudice than were those of an earlier era, The Wesleyan Church today is and must continue to be as clear cut in denouncing prejudice as were our founding fathers.” (Standing Firm, p. 5)
“Each individual should be respected as a person of intrinsic worth and dignity. Christians should set an example to others by their acceptance of each individual as a human being. Christians need to assume appropriate personal responsibility and accountability. The Christian concept of equality before the cross upon which Christ died removes grounds for discrimination of one over another. No person for whom Christ died is worthless. The obvious grounds of discrimination between people on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age, wealth, or handicap should be overcome by the unity of Christian love and by common personal submission to Christ.” (Standing Firm, p. 16)
“The Wesleyan Church upholds the right of all individuals to equal opportunity politically, economically and religiously, and pledges itself to an active effort to bring about the possession of dignity and happiness by all people everywhere.” (2000 Discipline 410:1)
“In spite of some forces which seek to undo our long-standing position on the ordination of women, we refuse to budge on this issue—we will not tolerate the blocking of a person’s ordination due to his or her gender, for we believe that both men and women are called to the ministry and thus should be ordained. Furthermore, we condemn any practice of exclusive male- only leadership on boards or committees in the church, excluding women from these positions by either public policy or unofficial behind-the-scenes agreed-upon policy, for we believe that when it comes to God’s gifts, graces and callings, there is neither male nor female.” (“Statement on Social Issues,” adopted by the 1996 General Conference)
We believe that our experience over the past 140 years affirms the fact that the Holy Spirit anoints and blesses the ministry of women. We can provide examples of pastors, evangelists, preachers, teachers, missionaries, church planters and church leaders who have rendered Spirit-anointed and Spirit-empowered service. They have won thousands of converts, recruited scores of ministers and leaders (both male and female), established scores of churches, developed mission fields, and taught entire generations of ministers in some overseas fields— often serving where no one else would go.
On the basis of the total teaching of Scripture, the sovereign call of God to women, and the demonstration of divine sanction and empowerment of women in ministry in our own denominational history, as well as that of the larger holiness movement, The Wesleyan Church affirms that woman is fully equal to man in terms of her responsibility, as directed by the Holy Spirit and authorized by the Church, to preach, teach, lead, govern or serve in any office or ministry of the Church.
Prepared by the Task Force on Women in the Ministry appointed by the General Board of The Wesleyan Church
10th international Come to the Water conference experiences Holy Spirit's visitation
The Wesleyan Church was represented with over thirty in attendance (see photo).
Dr. Jo Anne Lyon, General Superintendent of The Wesleyan Church, reported that following the message of Rev. Joanne Solis-Walker (pictured), there was an extraordinary outpouring of the Spirit for nearly an hour, in which the altars were in use, all were praying, no one left the room, and spontaneous singing broke out from time to time. All felt touched by God.
More than 460 women clergy, including denominational leaders from the seven sponsoring denominations, gathered for four days of inspiring preaching, educational workshops, and peer networking. Featured speakers included Rev. Dr. Carla Sunberg (Church of the Nazarene), Col. Janet Munn (The Salvation Army), Rev. Joanne Solis-Walker (pictured, The Wesleyan Church), and Rev. Lucia Delamarter (Free Methodist Church).
Those attending identified themselves as church planters (11), educators (58), missionaries (23), lead pastors (127), associate pastors (114), state agencies (25), national agencies (18), students (88), other areas of ministry (153).
The sponsoring denominations are: Brethren in Christ, Church of God (Anderson), Church of the Nazarene, Evangelical Friends, International, Free Methodist Church, The Salvation Army, and The Wesleyan Church. About one in five of those attending were students. A special offering was received to establish scholarship funds to help students attend future conferences.
The Wesleyan Holiness Women Clergy encourages and equips women called by God to Christian ministry within our movement. For more information or to join the membership, visit: wesleyanholinesswomenclergy.org.
Semple first female pastor of larger church
Since last fall, Red Cedar has grown significantly and the average has increased to over five hundred, although Heather says the number changes “every five minutes.” Staff members at the 14-year-old church have to exercise creativity in how to accommodate people in limited space. Currently, the church calls a store-front building home and holds three services each weekend.
“We are completely out of room,” said Heather. “Parking is limited downtown. People have to come early to park and not walk blocks to get to church.” It’s not just growth in attendance. Giving has increased by 29 percent in the last year, and 53 people are reported to have placed their faith in Christ since May of this year.
“Our staff rejoices over what God is doing,” said Heather. “People keep encountering Jesus.”
The church is in a county of 45,000, a town of 13,000. An agricultural and logging community, Rice Lake has large Lutheran and Catholic populations. The “laid back and honest atmosphere” of the church draws individuals and families every week.
“We minister mostly to the de-churched, not so much the never-churched,” said Heather. “There are people who get angry with the church, who know that God is probably important, but don’t understand what a real relationship with him looks like.”
The cultural context is changing in Rice Lake. Red Cedar has a vibrant Hispanic ministry, led by a staff pastor. Services are conducted in Rice Lake and Cumberland, a nearby city. Many migrant workers reside in the area, giving opportunity for ministry to people of different backgrounds. Within the Wisconsin district’s larger cities, ministry to the Burmese (from Myanmar, formerly Burma) is growing. And Red Cedar also ministers within a nearby Somali population, many of whom practice Islam. Heather knows that while communicating the gospel is most important, helping meet physical needs draws people to Christ as well.
“I have not been aware of female role models doing what we are trying to do here. Sometimes it is like a fast-moving train,” said Heather. She acknowledges her need for “voices of wisdom” to speak into her life and is grateful that Dr. Jo Anne Lyon has helped connect her with other leaders who have been where she is.
Heather rejoices that “I think I am doing exactly what I was born to do, and there is no better place to be.”
Milestone Anniversary for Women in Ministry
“The Wesleyan Church has led the way in affirming the role of women in ministry. One of her historic founders, the Reverend Luther Lee, preached the sermon for the ordination of Antoinette Brown, the first woman to be fully ordained in the United States. Within The Wesleyan Church itself, the Reverend Mary A. Will holds the distinction of being the first woman ordained to the ministry . . . .
Across the intervening 150 years since Mary Will’s ordination, hosts of women called by God have served in the ministries of the Church. Today ordained women serve in ministerial leadership as pastors, staff ministers, church planters, missionaries, professors in the religion divisions of our schools, administrators, and even in the church’s highest office, as General Superintendent of The Wesleyan Church . . . . ” *
In the Kansas District, there are eight ordained women currently serving in ministry leadership, three retired ordained women, five licensed women ministers, and nine women ministerial students. Many of the women gathered together at the celebration table at the conference.
Pictured from left to right: Misti Rothfuss, Joy Rothfuss, Rutila Cruz, Tamiko Bourland, partly hidden is Rev. Brenda Wahl, Rev. Diane Schlegel, Dr. Jo Anne Lyon (General Superintendent), Cheryl Denning, partially hidden is Linda Emig, Rev. Deb Kluttz, partially hidden Marcella Hamel, Rev. Jessica Swisher, and Rev. Barb Bennett.
*Excerpted from “Celebrating 150 Years of Women in Ministry in The Wesleyan Church”, courtesy of the Center for Women in Ministry
Women in Ministry Historical View
From its beginnings, The Wesleyan Church has championed the equality of women both in society and in God’s redemptive plan for mankind. In July of 1848, the first Women’s Rights Convention was held in Seneca Falls, NY at the Wesleyan Methodist Chapel.
In 1853, Rev. Luther Lee ordained Miss Antoinette Brown, a Congregationalist believed to be the first woman ever ordained in the modern era. Rev. Lee, not failing to recognize this historical event, stated in his introduction, “The ordination of a female, or the setting apart of a female to the work of the Christian ministry, is, to say the least, a novel transaction, in this land and age. It cannot fail to call forth many remarks, and will, no doubt, provoke many censures. As I have been called upon to deliver the discourse on the occasion, I should deem it out of place, tame and cowardly, for me to deliver an ordinary sermon setting forth the duties and responsibilities of a Christian minister, without taking hold of the peculiarity of the occasion, and vindicating the innovation which we this hour make upon the usages of the Christian World.”[i] Lee’s sermon, “A Woman’s Right to Preach the Gospel ,” was based on the Scripture verse: There is neither male nor female, for ye are all one in Christ Jesus. Galatians 3:28 (KJV).
Over the years, daring women—single, married, and widowed—have pioneered churches, assisted struggling churches, and revived dying churches. They have gone into the ghettos where men feared to walk and pulled the “brands” from the fire. They fearlessly entered the red light districts and snatched prostitutes from their surroundings. They established homes for unwed mothers and refuges for homeless and degraded persons. They even ventured to assist in housing for the worn, weary, and aged workers of the Church. Much of their work took them from their familiar surroundings into mountains, the slums, the strongholds of slavery, and the battlegrounds of drugs, tobacco, and alcohol. They felt the call of God to take the gospel not only to all races and educational and economic levels in North America but also across the oceans to every nation. (Celebrate Our Daughters p. 13)
We invite you to explore and discover the rich history of women in ministry. The following resources are but a few of the resources available at the Wesleyan Archives/Historical Library.
[i] Luther Lee, “Women’s Right to Preach the Gospel” A Sermon Preached at the Ordination of Rev. Miss Antoinette L. Brown, South Butler, Wayne County, N.Y., September 15,1853 (Syracuse, NY: Luther Lee 1853)
Why Wesleyans Favor Women in Ministry
1.Wesleyans favor the possibility of women in all positions of ministry because it represents the glorious fulfillment of the gospel.
Galatians 3:27-28 say, “As many who were baptized into Christ have put on Christ. There is neither Jew nor Greek; there is neither slave nor free; there is not ‘male and female.’ For you are all one in Christ Jesus.”
Often when weighing Scripture with Scripture, we must decide what the general principle is and what might be the exception to the rule. In this case, clearly “In Christ there is not ‘male and female’” is the general principle to which any other verses would be exceptions.
For example, we would not say, “A woman is not to teach or have authority over a man, BUT in Christ there is no ‘male and female.’” The one relates to earthly administration, the other to heavenly, spiritualidentity. Clearly the heavenly and spiritual have decisive precedence over the earthly and temporary. “You are all sons of God” (Gal. 3:26). Any earthly subordination or earthly distinction in role would be exactly that: earthly and temporary. We have no reason to believe that in heaven such differentiations will exist in role or authority.
Not “Male and Female”
Galatians 3:28 says, “In Christ there is not ‘male and female.’” Paul’s wording here alludes to Genesis 1:27 where God creates humans “male and female.” After Paul has used “neither-nor” several times, he interestingly switches his grammar: “neither Jew nor Greek… neither slave nor free”—then “not ‘male and female.’” Paul was not using awkward grammar. He made this switch to allude intentionally to Genesis 1:27 where God created humans “male and female.”
Therefore, in Christ there is not “male and female.” The distinction, made at creation, is undone in Christ. Indeed, in heaven any subordination of husband and wife will not exist because in heaven they neither marry nor are given in marriage but are like the angels (e.g. Mark 12:25-26).
Moving Closer to Heaven on Earth
For purposes of comparison, we might note that the books of the New Testament assume that Christians can have slaves. There were individuals in the first century who did not practice slavery on principle (see Philo on the Essenes, Every Good Person is Free 79), but the New Testament books do not argue this point. They never argue for the abolition of slavery. Even in Philemon, Paul does not explicitly tell this slave owner to set his slave free. Indeed, Colossians—a letter often thought to have accompanied Philemon—reinforces traditional slave-master roles (Col. 3:22-4:1).
Nevertheless, we would argue that the world moved closer to heaven when slavery was abolished. Similarly, the world moves closer to heaven when we enact as much as possible the equality of men and women on a spiritual plane. Some might argue that the female body has implications for the roles of women on the physical plane. But the glorious proclamation of the Christian gospel is that both male and female enter equally into Christ, both have equal access to God through Christ, and in heaven there will be no subordination of one to the other. Male spirit and female spirit are equal in Christ, and there can be no hierarchy between them.
Regardless of what one thinks on the question of husbands and wives, the heavenly destination in relation to the female spirit seems clear. How could we argue that in Christ a woman has any less access to heaven or the Spirit than a man? And if a woman has equal access to the Spirit, how could we argue that she has any less of God’s word to convey than a man? Some may argue for an earthly hierarchy, but how could anyone possibly deny that “not male and female” is a fundamental spiritual truth?
Females Who Prophesied in the New Testament
Joel 2:28 and Acts 2:17 predicted that Christian daughters would prophesy. These verses are undeniable affirmations that God uses women to convey spiritual truths to the earth. It thus reinforces our claim that women have access to the Spirit in Christ just as men do. We cannot use our interpretations of other Scriptures to negate this clear implication of Acts.
Indeed, in Acts 21:9 we learn that the 4 virgin daughters of Philip the evangelist prophesied. 1 Corinthians 11:5 refers to married women prophesying as well. We know they are married because their lack of covering dishonors their heads—which 11:3 defines as their husbands. For this reason we cannot claim that only single women can preach.
Similarly, there is nothing in these contexts that indicates these women only prophesied to women. Indeed, the 1 Corinthians 11 passage implies the contrary. Since the spirits of women and men are undifferentiated “in Christ,” we would be surprised if such a distinction were made in the first place. Christ has conquered the limitations of the earth and the sin of Eve! Any lingering traces of the limitations of earth will fully disappear in the kingdom of God.
2.We favor the possibility of women in all positions of ministry because the Biblical arguments against it don’t hold up against close scrutiny.
Husband-Wife or Man-Woman
We should probably distinguish husband/wife issues from the issue of women in ministry in general. We can fully believe that the husband is the head of the wife without negating the possibility of women ministering to men in general. For this reason, the submission passages in Ephesians, Colossians, and 1 Peter do not clearly address the issue of women in ministry. They deal with earthly roles within the family rather than the spiritual role of female ministry.
1 Corinthians 14:34-36
Similarly, 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 have a husband-wife situation in view, which eliminates it from the debate as well. When the Greek word gyne (“woman,” “wife”) is used in the presence of aner (“husband), it usually refers to wives in relation to husbands rather than women in relation to men in general. The word “to submit” reinforces this impression (14:34).
The 1 Corinthians 14 passage is difficult to understand in the first place because 1 Corinthians 11 has already implied that women did prophecy in Corinthian worship (cf. 11:5). The very dynamics of 1 Corinthians 11 are created largely because of a situation in which a man’s wife is doing something prominent in the presence of other men. She needs to cover her head and be modest in the presence of God, angels, and men who aren’t her husband.
In this light 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 cannot be an absolute statement. Otherwise Paul would contradict himself. He would assume that women prophesy in worship only to forbid it later in the same letter! Thus we can’t use these verses to support a case against women in ministry.
Women Did Minister to Men!
Regardless of what you think on the husband/wife issue, we do see women in the NT ministering to men. Priscilla helps instruct Apollos in Acts 18:26—and she is mentioned first before her husband in this instance! Phoebe is a “deacon” of the church at Cenchrea (Rom. 16:1). This is the same exact word used in Philippians 1:1 and 1 Timothy 3:8 for church leaders. It is not deaconess—it is the masculine form of the word. The church meets in the homes of women like Lydia (Acts 16:15) and Nympha (Col. 4:15). The Junias of Romans 16:7 may even be an apostle.
1 Timothy 2:12-15
Like 1 Corinthians 14, the comment in 1 Timothy 2:12 uses the word woman/wife (gyne) in the same sentence as husband/male (aner): “I do not allow a wife/woman to exert authority over a husband/man.” Since the arguments that follow relate to Adam and Eve—a husband-wife pair, it is quite possible that these verses also relate to the marriage relationship. If so, they also would not apply to the issue of women in ministry. In this case we have run out of verses against women taking such roles, and the objections are at an end.
Much ink has been spilt over the precise meaning of these verses. Accordingly, it is easy to get lost in the trees and miss the forest. In the end, we certainly would not want to make 1 Timothy 2:12-15 the key verses in our theology of women. We believe that God inspired these verses to meet the needs of the ancient Ephesians. But if we were to take them as absolute statements, they would imply that Christ’s death did not atone for all sins—in short, blasphemy.
A literal translation of the Greek of 2:14-15 reads, “The wife/woman, being deceived, has come to be in transgression. But she will be saved through childbearing, if they remain in faith and love and holiness with self-control.” The mention of Eve’s transgression in connection with childbearing alludes to Genesis 3:16. The punishment of Eve’s sin was increased pain in the birth process, a pain that all women continue to experience.
What is difficult is that 1 Timothy uses a tense that implies women are still in transgression as a result of the sin of Eve (the perfect tense), a state from which childbearing frees them. Our faith in Christ cannot allow us to take this comment at face value. Do we really want to argue that women today are still “in transgression” because of the sin of Eve, a state of transgression from which childbearing “saves” them?
1 Timothy is making a point to the Ephesians here, but it cannot negate the fact that Christ atoned for all transgressions, including the sin of Eve. To say otherwise is nothing short of blasphemy! This is scarcely a verse on which to base our theology. This passage likely reflects the issue of false teaching with which the Pastoral Epistles are so strongly concerned (cf. 2 Tim. 3:6). The statement of 1 Tim 2 here is heretical if we take it absolutely. We get the suspicion that these verses are so strong because some women at Ephesus were somehow serving as catalysts for false teaching there.
Nor can we use the order of creation in 1 Timothy 2:13 as an absolute argument: “Adam was formed first, then Eve” (1 Tim. 2:13). We’ve already seen that Galatians 3:28 ultimately undoes the differentiation between male and female made in creation. The birth order of Adam and Eve relates to the earthly and physical—clearly a less significant element in the equation than our spiritual destiny in Christ.
Nor are all women more gullible than all men—such a claim would simply be false. Yet many would use 1 Timothy 2:14 as if it were making such a claim: “Adam was not deceived, but the woman—because she was deceived—has come to be in transgression.” If we don’t view 1 Tim 2:12-15 in the light of specific problems at Ephesus, it leads to tremendous theological problems and indeed falsehoods—not preferable destinations by any means. Do we really want to take this passage with all its difficulties and make it the centerpiece for our theology of women?
Does God Want Even More?
The Wesleyan Church does not have an official position on how Christians should apply biblical passages on headship in the home to our lives today. Some Wesleyans believe the ideal is for the husband to be the leader of the home just as he was in the ancient context of such passages. Others interpret Ephesians 5:21 to teach mutual submission of husband and wife, with husbands submitting to wives at the same time that wives submit to husbands. While the issue of women in ministry does not rise or fall on this issue, we wonder if God doesn’t have more in mind for His people than a legalistic “husband heads the home” approach in every situation.
Unlike today, there was nothing distinctly Christian in Paul’s day in saying that a husband was the head of the wife. Aristotle says the same things: “The head of the household rules over both wife and children, and rules over both as free members of the household… His rule over his wife is like that of a statesman over fellow citizens… The male is naturally fitter to command than the female, except where there is a departure from nature” (Politics, 1.1259a-b).
In other words, Paul is talking like any non-Christian when he speaks of male headship. These comments sound distinctly Christian in our world, but they were not distinctly Christian in Paul’s day. It is when Paul moves toward the equality of the sexes in Christ that he is being uniquely Christian. Galatians 3:28 is uniquely Christian. 1 Corinthians 11:11-12 is distinctly Christian. Here is the spiritual dimension in contrast to the earthly.
Let us return to the institution of slavery. The heavenly principle was “neither slave nor free,” even though there were slaves and free. Despite the heavenly principle, passages like Ephesians 6:5-9 and Colossians 3:22-4:1 did not question the institution of slavery. They assumed it.
With regard to women, the heavenly principle is “not male and female” even though there are male and female. Despite the heavenly principle, passages like Ephesians 5:2-33 and Colossians 3:18-19 did not question the cultural roles of their day regarding husband and wife. They assumed them.
The early church, often persecuted, did not work toward societal change. They were concerned to get the gospel out and to survive persecution. And God, ever so patient, met them at their needs. He inspired books like 1 Peter that encouraged individuals like slaves who were unjustly treated and women whose husbands were not believers.
But in the 1800’s we moved further on the heavenly agenda with regard to slavery. At that time some did use the Bible in favor of slavery. The Wesleyan Methodist Church was one of several groups that saw where the Spirit was leading not only on the issue of slavery, but also on what God was doing for women. These were individuals who argued that women should be able to vote, and they accepted the women God called to ministry.
Since World War II, the rise of secular feminism has caused a backlash in some against women in ministry—even in our own church. The more biblical response, however, would be for us and for society in general to move further toward Kingdom values that are pleasing to the Lord! Let’s not allow Satan to trick us into opposing things God approves, just because our society has come to adopt some of them too. Can’t God change more than just the church? Can’t He change the world too? Admittedly, radical secular feminism is often linked with worldly pursuit of power and self. Overreaction to the unchristian elements, however, can cause us to miss what the Spirit has constantly been doing to elevate the full personhood, value, and leadership of women since Bible times.
3.We favor the possibility of women in all positions of ministry because God has called women in the past and continues to call women to ministry today.
Many of these have the gifts and graces to go along with such calls. Given that women prophesied and ministered in the New Testament church, by what authority could any Christian validly oppose these women who are called—simply because they are women? Do we really want to oppose the Holy Spirit? Quench not the Spirit! Of course, some may be mistaken about their call. But so are some men. The spiritual principle is to treat them both the same, because spiritually there is no “male and female.”
Now we believe that many of those who limit women in ministry do so sincerely and because they think such a position is God’s will. But Paul also talks about individuals who have a zeal for God without knowledge (Rom. 10:2). Paul’s Jewish opponents had good biblical bases for opposing his message too—probably better Old Testament proof texts than Paul had. After all, things like circumcision and purity rules were clearly taught in the Old Testament. Paul’s opponents were more “literal” and “fundamental” in their use of Scripture than he was.
But Paul was not just a man of the letter. He was a man of the Spirit. Paul said that his “letteral” opponents took pride in flesh rather than Spirit (Gal. 6:13). The same is true of those who oppose women in ministry—this is earthly, fleshly thinking. They are focusing on the earthly, physical “vessel” of the woman rather than her fully redeemed spirit. The gospel boldly proclaims that women “in Christ” are spiritually no different from men. Those who preclude women from equal spiritual ministry are thus thinking with their flesh, not the Spirit.
4.We favor the possibility of women in all positions of ministry because it makes sense, while to oppose women in ministry as a matter of principle doesn’t make sense.
Whether men like it or not, women are just as smart (often they’re smarter). Women mature more quickly than men as a rule. Women tend to be more loving than men (and often more Christian in their behavior, since love is the fulfillment of the law). The men of Paul’s day more often than not would not have accepted these claims, but no one today can seriously dispute them unless they avoid a lot of women.
If a woman has gifts of leadership, gifts of speaking, and spiritual insight, there is no logical reason why we shouldn’t actively seek for her to be leader and authority over men who are less gifted, less insightful, and who have less spiritual discernment. This is just good sense, bottom line. To place a less competent male over a more spiritual and gifted female—simply because of physical differences not particularly known for thinking or spirituality—well, it’s pretty hard to make any sense of it.
We can rationalize our opposition, but it’s just bad thinking. Does God promote bad thinking? Is it really God’s character to make up rules just for their own sake, even though they don’t make any sense (cf. Mark 2:27)? Sometimes God stoops to our weakness, like when He allowed divorce in the Old Testament (Deut. 24:1; Matt. 19:8), but ultimately He works His people toward the ideal. This is the age of the ideal!
Jesus and Paul regularly teach us not to put God in a box with our interpretations of the rules. The New Testament authors consistently interpreted the Old Testament spiritually more than literally. So if a woman senses God’s call, if a community of believers sees the evidence of that call, if the woman demonstrates leadership ability, why would we oppose this woman ministering? It would make no sense to oppose her.
No rational argument can be made against the possibility of women in ministry other than the fact that people often don’t accept a woman minister. So then, do we push the lowest common denominator because of the shortsightedness, ignorance, or even sinfulness of our people? Does God want us to accommodate ignorance in the church? When God is pushing us toward heaven, do we acquiesce to earthly, fleshly thinking? God forbid!
If some men feel intimidated by a woman God has called, we need to help them work through it, not reinforce their insecurity. If a woman feels like her comfort zone is called into question by another woman taking leadership, we need to help her grow, not support her weakness. Obviously everything must be done in love, and God even accommodated the weakness of the early Christians on these issues from time to time. In the times of this ignorance God winked at these things, but now calls us to end earthly mindedness and move further in the fulfillment of the gospel.
5.We favor the possibility of women in all positions of ministry because we don’t want to be guilty of submitting to the “weak and poor elements of the world” (Gal. 4:3, 9).
It is instructive to look carefully at what Paul is saying when he mentions the weak elements of the world in Galatians. He is referring to elements of the Old Testament Scripture. In Galatians 4:10 he refers to “days, months, seasons, and years,” just as in the rest of the letter he refers to circumcision (e.g. Gal. 5:2). Colossians uses this same phrase—“the elements of the world”—in reference to the Jewish Sabbath (Col. 2:16) and probably the food laws of Leviticus (Col. 2:16, 21).
The amazing thing is that all these things are required by the Old Testament—the only Bible Paul had at this time. Despite the clear literal meaning of these texts, Paul knew that the Spirit was leading to something higher and more heavenly. To continue to follow the letter was to submit to the elemental spirits of the world.
The same applies to the issue of women in the church. If we oppose the possibility of women in ministry, we are gravitating toward issues of earthly administration and the physical body. We are basing our theology on the limitations of the human and earthly. We are allowing ourselves to become enslaved to the weak and “beggarly” elements of the world.
But we must set our eyes toward Jesus and toward heaven. God is a God of the possibilities of heaven, not of the limitations of earth. He breaks the molds of this world and moves us toward the next. Therefore, let us run with patience the race that is set before us, looking to Jesus—the author and finisher of our faith!